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Biology

• an explanation for the role performed by each of the three enzymes i’ve asked you to know (rna primase, dna polymerase, and ligase).

Homework 3: DNA Replication
DNA replication is a complicated process, and it’s difficult (especially now with Covid and online learning) for me to tell if the entire thing is sinking in for students. To ensure that you understand the process I want you to write out a step-by-step explanation for how DNA replication works, from the start with a single double-stranded DNA molecule, to the end with two double-stranded DNA molecules. Your explanation should include the following:
• An organized and numbered list, where each step in the process is given a number (ex: Step 1, Step 2, Step 3, etc.)
• Six or more steps. If it seems like you can use fewer then you probably are not going into sufficient detail. More than six steps is completely fine.
• An explanation for the role performed by each of the three enzymes I’ve asked you to know (RNA primase, DNA polymerase, and Ligase).
• An explanation for how DNA polymerase knows what nucleotide to add next
If you are uncertain about any of the steps involved please email me or visit my office hours so that I can go over this in detail with you and ensure the process is clear in your mind.

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Biology

Own words no references or citation

own words no references or citation
1. Describe two examples of enzyme involvement in photosynthesis
.
2. Explain the role of the cytoplasm in photosynthesis.

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Biology

So you know exactly what is expected of this assignment.

Read the following abstract and data figure from a research paper.
1. What hypothesis are the researchers testing with these data?
2. Describe the results presented in the figure—what do you conclude from interpreting these data?
Do you think the researchers’ hypothesis was correct?
3. Explain how anthropogenic climate change will have (or has had) direct negative effects on you
personally, and describe the ultimate causes of anthropogenic climate change.
4. Describe specific actions you can take (or have taken) to lessen your contribution to anthropogenic
climate change.
Your paper must be 500-700 words long, with no cover sheet.
Scientific names must be italicized or underlined. The genus should be capitalized, the species
should not be capitalized. ex: Thalassia testudinum.
There should be no spelling, grammatical, and typographical errors.
The paper will be graded according to the rubric shown below. Be sure to read the rubric carefully
so you know exactly what is expected of this assignment.
Papers must be submitted via upload to the Canvas course site by the due date indicated in the
syllabus.
Chen, et al. (2011) Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming.
Science 333: 1024-1026. https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.1206432
Abstract
The distributions of many terrestrial organisms are currently shifting in latitude or elevation in
response to changing climate. Using a meta-analysis, we estimated that the distributions of species
have recently shifted to higher elevations at a median rate of 11.0 meters per decade, and to higher
latitudes at a median rate of 16.9 kilometers per decade. These rates are approximately two and
three times faster than previously reported. The distances moved by species are greatest in studies
showing the highest levels of warming, with average latitudinal shifts being generally sufficient to
track temperature changes. However, individual species vary greatly in their rates of change,
suggesting that the range shift of each species depends on multiple internal species traits and
external drivers of change. Rapid average shifts derive from a wide diversity of responses by
individual species.

Categories
Biology

We the human species are not just one blood line.

DNA is used to find long lost relatives and to put your family together. We all have DNA and certain type of genes in our bodies that can determine what we are mixed with and what our heritage is. Over 15vmillion people send in their DNA to find out who they truly are and where do they come from. Most people have about 3-5% of European in their DNA.
Genetic Genealogy creates family history profiles (biological relationships between or among individuals) by using DNA test results in combination with traditional genealogical methods. By using genealogical DNA testing, genetic genealogy can determine the levels and types of biological relationships between or among individuals. Depending upon how strong the autosomal DNA is. That will give the most accurate results. At times the DNA can become diluted and give inaccurate results. We the human species are not just one blood line. We come from different people and different DNA.
We are identify by our DNA, and genes. Once a person takes a swab test and send it of to the lab the other party does the same and scientist compare the two DNA and based upon the percentage can determine the outcome.

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Biology

Explain here how the gram stain works.

I need a lap report wrote up for a Gram stain I have already completed. Below I’m providing the list of materials used and steps used for the precedure. After that there will be a grading rubric of what needs to be included with the lab report. I have a picture of the organism under the microscope, its needed to answer, Color, Gram reaction, Morphology and arrangment. I will find way to provide that to you, may need to send it in a email
Materials:
1 culture per student
2 washed glass slides
Staining tray
Staining rack
Bibulous paper
Crystal Violet Dye (cationic dye- primary stain)
Safranin Dye (cationic dye- counterstain)
Acetone Alcohol (decolorizer)
Gram’s Iodine (mordent)
Distilled water
Slide box
Wax pencil
Method:
1. Prepare two smears from the culture as in lab exercise two. Heat fix both smears but only stain one.
2. Place one of the prepared smears on the staining rack on the staining tray.
3. Cover smear with crystal violet dye for 1 minute.
4. After 1minute, rinse smear with distilled water.
5. Cover smear with gram’s iodine for 1 minute.
6. Rinse smear with distilled water.
7. Cover smear with acetone alcohol and let stand for time frame determined on the previous gram stains.
8. Rinse smear with distilled water.
9. Cover smear with safranin dye for 1 minute.
10. After 1 minute, rinse with distilled water.
11. Place in bibulous paper and blot dry.
12. Take slide to microscope and focus under oil immersion using the procedure in lab one.
13. Determine the Gram Reaction, Morphology and Arrangement of the specimen.
14. Label the slide UGS (for Unknown Gram Stain) with wax pencil and place in slide box.
15. If gram reaction is gram variable, perform the gram stain on the second smear. If gram reaction is not, dispose of second smear in biohazard.
16. Complete results table to add to your first lab report.
Title : In a short sentence explain what the experiment was about ?
W r Introduction; give a brief history of the Gram stain. what kind of stain is it? What are the dyes used in the stain. What kind of dyes are these? What is the mordant and what is the role of the mordant? What is the decolorizer and what does the decolorizer do?
What information can we get from the gram stain? morphology, arrangement and cell wall characteristics.
What is its purpose?
Why would we want to know if it is Gram positive or gram negative?
Describe the gram positive cell wall and the Gram negative cell wall.
Materials and methods
Copy from bb protocols. However read each sentence and see if you performed that step. Make edits if necessary.
Results : Table ; make sure you write the organism number down.
t Discussion: do not state the results.
Explain why you said the cell was a coccus or bacillus. Explain why you said it had a particular arrangement?
Explain here how the gram stain works. If your organism was pink, then you know that this a Gram negative organism. Explain why the cell would lose the primary stain and instead pick up r secondary stain which would give it a red or pink color.
Next explain what happens for Gram positive organism and why they stain purple and do not lose their color even when decolorized.
Conclusion : explain the importance of the Gram stain with regards to treatment of bacterial infections. Also what are some of the limitations of the Gram stain?

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Biology

Single space

1. MINIMUM -1 PAGE of QUALITY writing
2. Of course, your thoughtfullness may be best indicated beyond 1 page
3. PAGE DIMENSION: 1 incj margins all around
4. FONT: 12, TIMES NEW ROMAM
5. SINGLE SPACE
6. Indent first line of paragraps; Justified (i.e., no hanging lines)
7. A “rush-job” on this will be easily seen. SO take your time an be thoughtful to obtain the 10-points
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_vulture_and_the_little_girl

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Biology

C.

Using you knowledge and any information from this article answer the following:
https://www.embopress.org/doi/full/10.1093/emboj/cdg359
Antibodies A, B, and C are identified against a particular antigen. After solving the structures of the antibody:antigen complexes, their properties are as follows: (10 points)
-Antibody A has a shape complementary score (Sc) of 0.73, buries 2000 A2 of surface area when binding to the antigen, forms 8 hydrogen bonds and 1 salt bridge with the antigen.
-Antibody B has a Sc score of 0.65, buries 1200 A2 of surface area, forms 1 H-bond and 5 salt bridges with the antigen.
-Antibody C has a Sc score of 0.62, buries 1800 A2 of surface area, forms 0 H-bonds and 0 salt bridges.
A. The interface with which antibody is likely to be the most hydrophobic? Why?
B. The interface with which antibody is most likely to be weakened substantially by a large change in pH? Why?
C. Overall, which antibody would you expect has the highest affinity for the antigen, and why?
D. Suppose the antigen in question is a viral membrane protein, and it is discovered that two of the three antibodies can prevent viral attachment to host cells, thereby neutralizing infection. How can the sum total of information learned about the three antibodies be useful?

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Biology

B.

1. Page One – Body of summary
Summary (in the student’s OWN words) of the article (9 points)
-summary portion must be at least one FULL page, single-spaced (1.0 spacing, no title, no heading);
-1” margins; LEFT justified (not Center)
-Times New Roman and 12 font;
-use proper paragraph organization (indentation, but no spaces between paragraphs), proper grammar and spelling;
-summary must be included in order for any points to be earned.
2. Page Two –
A. Critique/analysis of the article by the student: Why did you choose this topic
AND what did you think of the article? (two short paragraphs max)
(2 points)
B. APA Citation (4 points) – make sure the web address is a hyperlink that I can
click on to access the website.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/tooth-plaque#:~:text=Dental%20plaque%20contains%20bacteria%20that,disease%20in%20combination%20with%20lactobacilli.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/streptococcus-mutans

Categories
Biology

It has to be 1.5 spaced but there wasn’t an option for that.

It has to be 1.5 spaced but there wasn’t an option for that. All information will be uploaded on what is expected in specific detail.

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Biology

One paper should be a review (secondary) source and one paper should be a primary paper.

Find TWO research papers to support our research project on breast density and link to breast cancer. One paper should be a REVIEW (secondary) source and one paper should be a PRIMARY paper. After selecting your primary and secondary sourced papers, share the link and a short 300-500 word overview of the work. You do not need to totally understand the content….don’t worry we will get there. But read it and provide your best overview of what you think was accomplished in the paper. In your overview please include the following: * What did the scientists hope to learn (introduction) * What was their hypothesis (usually in the introduction as well) * What are the independent and dependent variables? * How did the scientists perform their work (methods) * What did the scientists learn (results) * Why was this work important (discussion) https://resources.library.lemoyne.edu/courses/bio218/PrimaryResearchVsReview